IOCIOC----


My research paper was on the attack on the Munich Olympic Games. The Olympic Games in 1976 occured in Munich,Munich, Germany Germany and many nations attended to display such athletic fervor. Then tragedy took place and some athletes were attacked by terrorists. Members of the Israel swimming team were attacked by Palestinean militia men. The terrorists were angry at the Olympic Community for not allowing them to participate in the Games. Nine hostages were taken and some were killed inside of the Olympic Compound. Negotiations occured between the German authorities and the terrorists but there was not much progress made. Finally, an offer was made at an airport where airplanes were to be provided for the terrorists in return the authorities will recieve the remaining athletes. The German authorities wanted to launch a surprise attack but failed miserably. The snipers that were suppose to shoot down the terrorists missed their targets so the terrorists attacked back by killing all of the remaining athletes. In the end, the athletes were brought back to their hometown and a proper burial ensued. The families of the athletes felt bitter for no real explanation was given to why nothing was done to protect their family members but recieved monetary compensation. Overall the effect of these Games was that security at the Olympic Games is more tight and throughly inspected.
My response to my research paper is that ThanK GoD it is OVer. Nevertheless, this project was very interesting because I got insight into how and why the Munich Games were attacked. I, however, do not appreciate the fact that the terrorists attacked the innocent athletes for something done to them by someone else. I do not agree with the fact that the terrorists acted for political motives, killing people for own political believes. My research topic was very interesting at first but then it got kinda boring! Maybe because it was all we did for like seventeen months!!

The Attack on Munich
I. The Munich Winter Olympics occurred in 1972, and were attacked by terrorists.
A. The terrorist activities that took place in the Munich Olympic Games originated in Palestine.
1. The terrorists dominated major cities in Palestine during 1971 and 1972 (Calahan 4).
2. The authorities had a difficult time controlling the insurgents (“Black” 1).
3. In an attempt to so, there were 500 encounters between the police and the insurgents (“Black” 1).
B. Yasir Arafat, the Palestinian Prime Minister, was the leader of Fatah, a terrorists group, from 1969 and also was the leader of the Black September Organization (Calahan 4).
1. The Black September Organization, BSO, carried out the terrorist attacks on Munich (Calahan 4).
2. The PLO Faction was a branch of Fatah and the main objective of this group was to establish an independent Palestinian state (Pike 1).
C. The Fatah Organization moved into different countries.
1. The Fatah was forced out from Jordan and Egypt, making it difficult to attack Israel from across the border (Calahan 4).
2. Israel occupied the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem (Pike 1).
D. The first time Palestine elected its government by popular vote was in 1996 (Pike 2).
1. The elections before 1996 were always corrupt (Pike 2).
2. The new government was well accepted by the Palestinian public, in that most were willing to go against the major Arab governments (“Black” 5).
E. The Munich attacks occurred because an Arabic article stated that the International Olympic Committee did not acknowledge the Palestinian’s request for having their own Olympic team (Wolff 6).
1. The 1972 Winter Olympics were first to be held in Germany since the Berlin Games, when Hitler was still in power (Kieran 453).
2. The Opening Ceremonies of the Munich Games were less extravagant than the Berlin Games (Kieran 463).
II. The Olympic Games were an international event and are sometimes used as a political platform (“Modern” 1).
A. The 1972 Winter Olympic Games broke the record with 195 events and 7,173 athletes from 121 different countries (“Munich” 1).
B. The terrorists, who attacked, were a group of eight men who sneaked into the Olympic Compound.
1. They were students from Jordan and in the beginning stages, a total of fifteen guerillas were plotting the attack (Calahan 4).
2. The aim of the attack was to “scare the world public during their ‘happy Olympic Games’ and make them aware of the [injustice done to the] Palestinians” (Wolff 2).
C. The terrorists got into the compound housing of the Israeli athletes by climbing the fence and meeting two Palestinians who worked in the compound (History 138).
D. The terrorists took hostages with them to make a bold statement.
1. The original plan of the terrorists was to get the Israeli athletes alive without having to use excessive force or weapons (Wolff 5).
2. The terrorists took nine hostages with them to make a bold statement but killed two athletes in the compound (Lewis 2).
E. The terrorists demanded that the 234 Arab and German prisoners, being held in Israel and West Germany, be released (Calahan 2).
F. The first day of negotiations was unsuccessful and the hostages were taken to an airport for a flight to the Middle East (Lewis 2).
1. The terrorists and the German authorities agreed to provide three planes for escape, the prisoners were to be released, and another as a means of escape for the terrorists (Calahan 2).
2. The transfer of hostages to the planes was scheduled at night when few Olympic meets were planned (Kieran 479).
G. Egypt was involved in this event because Cairo was to be used as a meeting place for the prisoners but Egypt officials refused to cooperate (Calahan 2).
H. At the airport where the exchange was to occur, the German authorities decided to launch a surprise attack on the terrorists.
1. Schreiber, the Munich Police Commissioner, wanted to isolate the terrorists at the “Germany Furstnefeldbruck Airport” and then the sharpshooters would shoot down the terrorists (Calahan 2).
2. The objective of the plan was to kill the Black September Organization members and “create terror within the terrorists’ organization” (Calahan 5).
3. The infantry attack was designed to move the terrorists from the “vicinity” of the helicopters, housing the terrorists (Calahan 3).
4. At the last minute, the terrorists tossed a grenade, killing the hostages (Calahan 3).
5. The German sharpshooters began to open fire but all missed the target and the battle lasted approximately one hour and fifteen minutes (Calahan 3).
6. In the end, all the hostages died, including a police officer (Lewis 2).
7. However, three terrorists were captured (Calahan 3).
I. False news regarding the situation was spread by radio and television reports, including that the hostages had been freed (Kieran 139).
III. The Munich Massacre immediately impacted the Olympic Games.
A. After taking hostages, the Olympic Games were suspended for a (“Modern” 2).
1. The controversy surrounding them was whether or not letting the games continue after the attack (“Munich” 1).
2. Cancellation of the games “would have encouraged repeated acts of terrorism” (History 140).
3. A division of opinion occurred on whether the games should be closed or continued (Kieran 480).
B. The International Olympic Committee, IOC, felt that Avery Brundage, head of the IOC, behaved in a faulty manner but agreed to the cancellation of the games (History 139).
1. Comte Jean de Beaumont, a member of the IOC, was angered by Brundage’s actions and felt that he thought he was the only member of the IOC (History 139).
2. Another criticism was that Brundage did “not immediately suspend the games” (“Munich” 1).
C. Mourning for the attacks occurred in the Olympic Stadium where 80,000 people gathered including athletes from all countries except from the Arab Nations and Russia (Kieran 480).
D. American athletes were also affected by the attacks on the Israeli athletes.
1. T. Hill was an athlete competing in the games who felt that the games should continue because the terrorists “would have clearly won this thing, and so you think, ‘What would you accomplish by discontinuing the games?’ Well, you almost encourage [the terrorists]” (Lewis 2).
2. Mark Spitz, an American athlete, won seven gold medals in the games (Kieran 467).
E. The world was disgusted by Palestinian actions and denounced Palestinian terror and the public opinion turned against Palestine, causing Yasir Arafat to defend himself and his involvement with the Black September Organization (“Black” 6-7).
F. Some mistakes with German intelligence were that the German police had gotten at least three reports of increased terror activities, the number of terrorists was underestimated, and there was little contact among officers (Wolff 9).
G. Dr. Georg Sieber was a psychologist who was hired to determine the “worst-case scenarios” for the Munich Games and he had predicted kidnapping, hijacked jets and bombs but no real attention was paid to his analysis (Wolff 1).
IV. The attack on the Israeli athletes has a continued impact on the world.
A. Brundage was correct when he believed that most of the public was on his side after his actions during the games (History 140).
B. The outside forces that affect the Olympic Games are commercial, political and criminal pressure because “the more important the games got the more they are open to commercial, political and now criminal pressure” (Kieran 454).
C. The cost of production in the Munich Olympic Games was two million dollars and today security alone is six hundred million dollars (Wolff 3).
D. The popularity and prestige has not changed, in fact, the Olympic Games receive more media coverage and generate more money than any other event (“Black” 3).
E. The victims’ families were also affected by the attacks.
1. The victims’ families have filed a negligence suits because they believe that the “Germans should have anticipated some [kind of] attack” (Wolff 9).
2. The families did not receive any formal apology and felt that the Germans still have not released all of the information that they know (Wolff 9).
3. The families were to be compensated three million dollars to be paid by German, Bavarian and Munich governments (Wolff 9).
F. Terrorism now has become a major part of the world.
1. The Israeli stand on terrorism continues to be a “no compromise stance [against] terrorist aggression” and has formed a “secret” counterterrorism group (Calahan 4).
2. The attack on the Munich Games is irrelevant today and it is unlikely that it will occur again (Wolff 3).
G. In the 2,748 years of the Olympic Games, nothing as deadly as the Munich Games has ever occurred (Kieran 451).
H. To display such devastation, Steven Spielberg has directed a movie, “Munich”, which depicts the events during the Olympic Games and the aftermath.
The Olympic Games are an international event where the best athletes from all around the world are invited to compete for medals. The medals awarded rank in gold, silver, and bronze. There are two types of Olympics, the Summer Games and the Winter Games, where the events are planned according to the season. The event is held in a different city every four years. The Munich Games were no exception, having returned to Germany in 1972. The events that occurred in those Olympics were not planned, catching many people by surprise. However, these events had a lasting impact. The attack on the Munich Olympic Games had a negative global impact in the 1970s.
The Munich Winter Olympics occurred in 1972, and were attacked by terrorists. The terrorist activities that took place in the Munich Olympic Games originated in Palestine. The terrorists dominated major cities in Palestine during 1971 and 1972. The authorities had a difficult time controlling the insurgents. In an attempt to do so, there were 500 encounters between the police and the insurgents (“Black” 1). Yasir Arafat, the Palestinian Prime Minister, was the leader of Fatah, a terrorists group, from 1969 and also was the leader of the Black September Organization. The Black September Organization, BSO, carried out the terrorist attacks on Munich. The PLO Faction was a branch of Fatah and the main objective of this group was to establish an independent Palestinian state (Pike 1). The Fatah Organization moved into different countries. The Fatah was forced out from Jordan and Egypt, making it difficult to attack Israel from across the border (Calahan 4). Israel occupied the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem (Pike 1).
The first time Palestine elected its government by popular vote was in 1996. The elections before 1996 were always corrupt (Pike 2). The new government was well accepted by the Palestinian public, in that most were willing to go against the major Arab governments (“Black” 5). The Munich attacks occurred because an Arabic article stated that the International Olympic Committee did not acknowledge the Palestinian’s request for having their own Olympic team (Wolff 6).
The 1972 Winter Olympics were first to be held in Germany since the Berlin Games, when Hitler was still in power (Kieran 453). The Opening Ceremonies of the Munich Games were less extravagant than the Berlin Games (Kieran 463). The 1972 Winter Olympic Games broke the record with 195 events and 7,173 athletes from 121 different countries (“Munich” 1).
The terrorists, who attacked, were a group of eight men who sneaked into the Olympic Compound. They were students from Jordan and in the beginning stages, a total of fifteen guerillas were plotting the attack (Calahan 4). The aim of the attack was to “scare the world public during their ‘happy Olympic Games’ and make them aware of the [injustice done to the] Palestinians” (Wolff 2). The terrorists got into the compound housing of the Israeli athletes by climbing the fence and meeting two Palestinians who worked in the compound (History 138). The original plan of the terrorists was to get the Israeli athletes alive without having to use excessive force or weapons (Wolff 5). The terrorists took nine hostages with them to make a bold statement but killed two athletes in the compound (Lewis 2).
The terrorists demanded that the 234 Arab and German prisoners, being held in Israel and West Germany, be released (Calahan 2). The first day of negotiations was unsuccessful and the hostages were taken to an airport for a flight to the Middle East (Lewis 2). The terrorists and the German authorities agreed to provide three planes for escape, the prisoners were to be released, and another as a means of escape for the terrorists (Calahan 2). The transfer of hostages to the planes was scheduled at night, when few Olympic meets were planned (Kieran 479). Egypt was involved in this event because Cairo was to be used as a meeting place for the prisoners but Egypt officials refused to cooperate (Calahan 2).
At the airport where the exchange was to occur, the German authorities decided to launch a surprise attack on the terrorists. Schreiber, the Munich Police Commissioner, wanted to isolate the terrorists at the “Germany Furstnefeldbruck Airport” and then the sharpshooters would shoot down the terrorists (Calahan 2). The objective of the plan was to kill the Black September Organization members and “create terror within the terrorists’ organization” (Calahan 5). The infantry attack was designed to move the terrorists from the “vicinity” of the helicopters, housing the terrorists. At the last minute, the terrorists tossed a grenade, killing the hostages. The German sharpshooters began to open fire but all missed the target and the battle lasted approximately one hour and fifteen minutes (Calahan 3). In the end, all the hostages died including a police officer (Lewis 2). However, three terrorists were captured (Calahan 3). False news regarding the situation was spread by radio and television reports, including that the hostages had been freed (Kieran 139).
The Munich Massacre immediately impacted the Olympic Games. After taking the hostages, the Olympic Games were suspended for a day (“Modern” 2). The controversy surrounding them was whether or not letting the games continue after the attack (“Munich” 1). Cancellation of the games “would have encouraged repeated acts of terrorism” (History 140). A division of opinion occurred on whether the games should be closed or continued (Kieran 480). The International Olympic Committee, IOC, felt that Avery Brundage, head of the IOC, behaved in a faulty manner but agreed to the cancellation of the games (History 139). Comte Jean de Beaumont, a member of the IOC, was angered by Brundage’s actions and felt that he thought he was the only member of the IOC (History 9). Another criticism was that Brundage did “not immediately suspend the games” (“Munich” 1).
Mourning for the attacks occurred in the Olympic Stadium where 80,000 people gathered including athletes from all countries except from the Arab Nations and Russia (Kieran 480). American athletes were also affected by the attacks on the Israeli athletes. T. Hill was an athlete competing in the games who felt that the games should continue because the terrorists “would have clearly won this thing, and so you think, ‘What would you accomplish by discontinuing the games?’ Well, you almost encourage [the terrorists]” (Lewis 2). Mark Spitz, an American athlete, won seven gold medals in the games (Kieran 467).
The world was disgusted by Palestinian actions and denounced Palestinian terror and the public opinion turned against Palestine, causing Yasir Arafat to defend himself and his involvement with the Black September Organization (“Black” 6-7). Some mistakes with German intelligence were that the German police had gotten at least three reports of increased terror activities, the number of terrorists was underestimated, and there was little contact among officers (Wolff 9). Dr. Georg Sieber was a psychologist who was hired to determine the “worst-case scenarios” for the Munich Games and he had predicted kidnapping, hijacked jets and bombs but no real attention was paid to his analysis (Wolff 1).
The attack on the Israeli athletes has a continued impact on the world. Brundage was correct when he believed that most of the public was on his side after his actions during the Games (History 140). The outside forces that affect the Olympic Games are commercial, political and criminal pressure because “the more important the games got the more they are open to commercial, political and now criminal pressure” (Kieran 454). The cost of production in the Munich Olympic Games was two million dollars and today security alone is six hundred million dollars (Wolff 3). The popularity and prestige has not changed, in fact, the Olympic Games receive more media coverage and generate more money than any other event (“Black” 3).
The victims’ families were also affected by the attacks. The victims’ families have filed negligence suits because they believe that the “Germans should have anticipated some [kind of] attack”. The families did not receive any formal apology and felt that the Germans still have not released all of the information that they know. The families were to be compensated three million dollars to be paid by German, Bavarian and Munich governments (Wolff 9).
Terrorism now has become a major part of the world. The Israeli stand on terrorism continues to be a “no compromise stance [against] terrorist aggression” and has formed a “secret” counterterrorism group (Calahan 4). The attack on the Munich Games is irrelevant today and it is unlikely that it will occur again (Wolff 3). In the 2,748 years of the Olympic Games, nothing as deadly as the Munich Games has ever occurred (Kieran 451). To display such devastation, Steven Spielberg has directed a movie, “Munich”, which depicts the events during the Olympic Games and the aftermath. This movie is widely revered and was nominated for an Academy Award for “Best Picture” for it’s portrayal of that fateful night.